Monday, February 24, 2020
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - Essay Example All should be familiar with the presenting signs and symptoms of TOS, and include the syndrome in their differential diagnosis. TOS typically presents with aching-type pain radiating from the scapula down the upper extremity, with associated numbness or tingling. It is common in women between 20 and 50 years of age TOS is usually divided into three groups: vascular TOS, in those with compression of the subclavian vessels; neurogenic TOS, those with compression of the brachial plexus; and disputed neurogenic TOS (Roos, 1984). The diagnosis of TOS can be made by history, clinical examination, provocative tests, ultrasound, vascular studies, radiological evaluation, and electrodiagnostic evaluation. Initially, conservative treatment is offered to most patients. Definitive treatment involves surgical decompression of the related structures (Roos, 1984) TOS subcategories usually are caused by the compression of brachial plexus elements and/or vasculature, which occurs in what is called thoracic outlet (TO), but really is the thoracic "inlet." The compressive sites within this anatomic territory vary and include the interscalene triangle, the most common location, and the costoclavicular and subcoracoid spaces. The TO, more correctly termed thoracic inlet, is a pyramidal space bordered anteriorly by (1) the claviculomanubrial complex, laterally by (2) the first rib and posteriorly by (3) the vertebral column (Roos, 1984). Contained in this space are the apex of the lung and pleura, the subclavian artery and veins and jugular vein, the lymphatics, the anterior and middle scalene muscles, the brachial plexus trunks and the sympathetic trunk. The thoracic inlet region can be subdivided into 3 anatomic spaces, each of which can be the site of compression of the structures therein. The spaces and their associated compression syndromes in clude: the proximal (1) interscalene triangle, associated with the "scalenus anticus syndrome," a TOS without a bony abnormality and due to compression of the brachial plexus and/or vasculature between hypertrophied anterior and middle scalene muscles. There is also, next, the (2) costoclavicular triangle or space, resulting in the costoclavicular syndrome, owing to narrowing of the space between the clavicle and first rib, and the (3) subcoracoid space. The subclavian vessels and brachial plexus traverse these 3 anatomic spaces within the cervico-axillary canal before reaching the arm (Divi etal, 2005). Vascular TOS These can be arterial or venous. Arterial TOS results from subclavian artery compression and insufficiency, which manifests as intermittent arm and/or hand coolness and fatigue. Actual arterial damage can occur and result in an aneurysm, embolus, and/or vessel occlusion with accompanying advanced ischemia, or even gangrene. Venous TOS is another form of vascular TOS presenting as intermittent mild arm swelling and duskiness from subclavian vein compression owing to bony anomalies or fascial bands at the level of the thoracic inlet (Divi etal, 200). These mild findings can progress to constant pain and severe upper extremity edema with skin discoloration. A pulmonary embolus from subclavian vein injury and thrombosis may ultimately occur (Roos, 1984) Investigation for vascular TOS In the radiologic evaluation of a patient with possible TOS, chest x-rays may reveal
Saturday, February 8, 2020
The Lamentation by Ludovicco Carracci - Research Paper Example The figureÃ¢â¬â¢s pose invokes the dead Christ. It shows ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s right hand as being distorted. His left hand which is cradled by Mary Magdalene appears dislocated. The virgin has fainted at the sight of her son lying across her lap. In this artwork, the Virgin Mary is shown as a middle-aged woman instead of young and beautiful. Saint John is shielding ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s feet by a raised winding sheet and falls with increasing strength on his chest and head. The Virgin Mary, the other three Maries and Saint John are used to bring out a striking effect on the artwork with a neutral background (Wolk-Simon, Bambach & Alsteens 127). Mannerist was used to make the painting. The artwork is associated with the 15th century in the year 1582. The artworkÃ¢â¬â¢s origin is in Italy in Bologna. The artwork fits in the category of the 15th-century Italian printers. The technique used to make this artwork was painting using oil on canvas material. Traditional oil painting often began with sketches onto the canvas with charcoal, chalk or thinned paint. The oil paint was then mixed with linseed oil or other solvents to create a faster drying paint. Generally, solvents thin the oil in the paint. Moreover, each additional layer should contain more oil than the layer before it, to allow proper drying. If the additional layer contains less oil, then the final painting will crack and peel. The quality and type of oil determine whether the paint film is stable and strong. Oil paint does not dry fast it remains wet for long. This enables the artist to revise their work if any correction is needed. An artist can change the color , texture or the form of the whole artwork. Earlier works were panel paintings on wood but around the 15th century canvas became more popular. Canvas was preferred by artists because it was cheaper than wood and easy to transport because it was light. Painting using oil on canvas spread through Italy from
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Tragic Hero Macbeth Essay 1. In the Shakespearean tragedy, Ã¢â¬Å"The Tragedy of MacbethÃ¢â¬ , Macbeth himself did not come from noble stature, but instead he followed into the line of kingship, and had presented himself with outstanding qualities; such as strong abilities out on the battlefield. 2. The hamartia presented in Macbeth resulted in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s own murder against his good king Duncan, in order to gain power, fame, and fortune for his own pleasure. Macbeth himself had a hubris or pride and passion that he allowed to take over his decisions, leading to his tragic downfall. 3. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall itself was led by his own freewill, overridden by his own arrogant confidence. Proof he had taken done this to himself is said so by Macbeth, Ã¢â¬Å"I am in blood stepped in so far that, should I wade no more, returning were as tedious as to go oÃ¢â¬â¢er.Ã¢â¬ (Act III, Scene 4, Line 136-138). 4. As the audience, pity was expressed dearly through MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s possible and yet great human potential, Ã¢â¬Å"I have lived long enoughÃ¢â¬ ¦and that which should accompany old age, as honor, love, obedience, troops of friends, I must not look to have.Ã¢â¬ (Act V, Scene 3, Line 22-26). 5. The first signs of awareness are when Macbeth puts together the real predictions granted to him by the three apparitions, Ã¢â¬Å"Let every soldier hew him down a bough and bear it before him.Ã¢â¬ (Act V, Scene 4, Line 4-7). He is then lead to accepting his fate or anagnorisis, right before Macbeth is slain by Macduff, Ã¢â¬Å"I will not yield, to kiss the ground before young MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s feetÃ¢â¬ ¦I throw my warlike shield. Lay on, Macduff.Ã¢â¬ (Act V, Scene 8, Line 27-24). Part Two: By using AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of a tragic hero, I would conclude that Macbeth is indeed a tragic hero. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic flaw mostly described as his passion, where he would contemplate over and over with his very own reasoning, in which passion overrules all of his humanly common senses; this causes an imbalance between human reason and passion thus leading to tragic consequences or rather the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic death.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Role of Smallpox Vaccine in the Prevention and Treatment of Variola major and Variola minor Smallpox has claimed the lives of many ever since the Middle Ages. However, it has now been eradicated due in part to a very effective vaccine. The vaccine has saved the lives of thousands and has eradicated the disease in the history of man kind. This miracle vaccine can greatly diminish the effects variola and even stop the disease from becoming fatal. The vaccine is also the only known way to fight the smallpox, and until an antiviral agent is found, it will be humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s only defense against this deadly and devastating disease. The pathogenic virus Variola causes the well-known and often deadly virus smallpox. Smallpox has been eradicated for about 25 years, mostly on the part of a successful vaccine. As mentioned earlier, Variola is a virus. There are three forms of the virus that are most prominent: variola, variola hemorrhagica, and varioloid. (2) All these viruses are classified as the cause of smallpox though simulate different symptoms. Any individual with any of these viruses can either have variola major or variola minor. Variola major is the more severe form of smallpox. (2) Unvaccinated patients diagnosed with variola major have a 30-50% fatality rate, while if the same patients had variola minor, they would have a 1-2% chance of death. (3) In vaccinated patients, only 3% of people diagnosed with variola major die. With a few exceptions, no vaccinated patients with the minor form of the disease have died. Smallpox is characterized by a series of symptoms. These symptoms will first occur within 7-17 days after exposure to the virus. (3) The symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting or severe muscles ac... ... may have been one of the most influential vaccines ever developed. Its role in the prevention of smallpox has been great. Role of Smallpox VaccineÃ¢â¬ ¦5 References 1. Center for Disease Control. (2004, December). Smallpox Disease Overview. Center for Disease Control. Date retrieved: July 12, 2005: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/overview/disease-facts.asp 2. Thomas, R. (1907). Variola. The Eclectic Practice of Medicine. Date retrieved: July 21, 2005: http://www.ibilio.org/herbmed/eclectic/thomas/smallpox.html 3. Utah Department of Health: Bureau of Epidemiology. (2002). Smallpox (Variola). Smallpox (Variola). Date retrieved: July 21, 2005: file:///X|/Epidemiology/ELS_old/epidemiology/epifacts/smallpox.html 4. World health Organization. Smallpox. World Health Org. Date retrieved: July 21, 2005: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheet/smallpox/en/print.html
Monday, January 13, 2020
If a man can fight, heÃ¢â¬â¢s a hero. If a woman can fight, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s a b**ch! Representation of women in action films The film industry never seems to lack action films and there always plenty for the market to choose from however how many of those have women in a leading role? A handful. There arenÃ¢â¬â¢t that many films that feature women in lead roles within action films. But the question is why? Why havenÃ¢â¬â¢t a majority of these women been given a chance? Are actresses like Uma Thurman and Angelina Jolie one-woman-wonders or have they just been given a lucky break?IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be exploring the representation of women in action films through a semiotic analysis. David Gauntlett argues that Ã¢â¬Å"in contemporary society, gender roles are more complex and the media reflects this. The female roles today are often glamorous as well as successful in a way that they were previously not. Much of this is due to the rise of Ã¢â¬Ëgirl powerÃ¢â¬â¢ in the media, through ident ities constructed by music artists and contemporary actresses, for example, who are demanding less passive rolesÃ¢â¬ which explains how films like CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s Angels have made it to the forefront.Unfortunately, women have repeatedly suffered from a narrow set of representations in the media. They are regularly linked to the domestic situation i. e. housewives, or as sexual objects represented to entertain men. Furthermore, Ã¢â¬Å"the number of roles for leading women is far below that of men. Ã¢â¬ CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s Angels: Full Throttle is the film IÃ¢â¬â¢ve chosen explore and there several reasons behind this. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve chosen this text because it portrays women within dominant roles. Furthermore, the concept behind it breaks the pre-existing norm of women being the sexual object that entertains the male hero/spy.This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case in this film, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re heroes fighting crime and saving the day. Not only are they stunning and beautiful but they also poss ess skills that crush and challenge existing stereotypes about women which is exactly why I chose this film. CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s Angels: Full Throttle is an action comedy film that was released on the 27 June 2003. The film was directed by McG and produced on a budget of $120 million. It was the sequel to the 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s Angels and it was number one at the box office for its opening weekend and produced a worldwide gross of $259. 2 million. The film was a success.It stars an ensemble cast including Cameron Diaz, Drew Barrymore and Lucy Liu. It also features notable actors and actresses such as Demi Moore, Shia LaBeouf and Matt LeBlanc. Diaz, Barrymore and Liu or the Ã¢â¬Å"AngelsÃ¢â¬ , are three extremely talented, strong, sexy women who work as private investigators for unseen millionaire named Charlie. Prior to this film, they had starred in more passive roles in the romantic comedy genre. In most action films, Ã¢â¬Å"men were more likely to be adventurous, activ e and vicarious, whereas women were more frequently shown as weak, ineffectual, victimised, supportive, laughable or Ã¢â¬Ëmerely token femalesÃ¢â¬ (Gunter, 1995).A film such as this allowed their fans to view them in a more dominant, powerful light. This immediately challenges the pre-existing stereotype of women because they are illustrated as superior to their male counterpart. The angels are independent women who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t tied down or held back by men. On-the-other-hand, the fact that they work for a male, wealthy character who controls their every move is ironic because in reality, many women are in similar situations and living in a patriarchal society. The opening scene of the film is a brilliant example of the female representation shown throughout the plot.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s set in a filthy, hostile bar in the Himalayas in Mongolia. The bar is packed with lots of men drinking and jeering. The use of an establishing long shot works well to familiarise the audience with the initial setting and atmosphere. I believe the director did this in order to show the contrast between all of the men and the Angels. A dolly shot is used to track two men carrying a box so the audience become intrigued to learn the contents as they descend into the basement. To the surprise of the audience, Alex Munday (Lucy Liu) was inside the box; contortioned and tucked away.A high angle shot is used and the camera tilts in order to display the actressesÃ¢â¬â¢ flexibility. As she rises out of the box the camera zooms into a close up of Liu as she does a symbolic swipe of her long, dark hair; an iconic move for any female superpower. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s dressed in a black leather ensemble which connotes mystery and obscurity. Perhaps out of the three angels, Liu is the dark horse. As she stands against the wall, a medium shot is used cleverly because not only can we see Liu against the wall but we can also see the hostage and his capturers in the room behind the actress.The connotatio n is accurate as she then saves the hostage by taking out the guards with some impressive combat. Her character is almost portrayed to be a female equivalent to Jet Li; she appears to be unstoppable and fierce. As she drags the hostage up the stairs, the lighting changes dramatically. The basement was very dark and low-key lighting was used which made the action stealthy and hostile. Whereas, the lighting used in the bar is high-key; very bright and there are few shadows.This is symbolic because itÃ¢â¬â¢s as if Alex has taken the hostage from hell (dark, unpleasant) and to heaven (bright, hope) which is essentially the purpose of an angel both contexts. Meanwhile upstairs, the atmosphere is volatile as a new character emerges dressed in a red, sleek kimono. Her costume connotes love, passion and warmth however in this scenario it connotes danger, sin and aggression. This is the 2nd angel; Dylan Saunders. The camera tilts over her shoulder and shows the male opponent smirking at he r and then it pans around the table to eventually show her face.As she throws back a shot of alcohol, she comes across as the bad angel, the bad girl of the trio. The use of red with Dylan in this scene is symbolic because it displays a wide contrast between her and Alex. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s more masculine in her body language but the director has tried to mask this behind the sexy outfit and red lipstick. As she walks away she clasps one of the guards by the waist, grabs his keys and tucks them away subtly. The focus then turns to the doors of the bar and the audience anticipates the worst. As the doors fling open, a medium shot shows a tanned, petite and blonde angelic woman.This is the third and final angel, Natalie Cook. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s dressed in a white, fluffy coat and a revealing white mini skirt. This connotes purity, happiness and honesty which would be fitting for a normal angel. However, Natalie is no ordinary angel. As she stands at the door, she looks lost and dazed and a close- up of her face supports this further. As the men stare at her beauty in awe, she jeers at them and they erupt with excitement. The men are so amazed they form a guard of honour for Natalie as she walks over to the mechanical bull.Whereas, when Dylan wanted to move through the men they simply didnÃ¢â¬â¢t move and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even know she was there. The use of white dumbs the men and amplifies NatalieÃ¢â¬â¢s angelic nature. Furthermore, her body language also plays a part in stunning the men. She giggles excessively and winks at a few of the men. Also, Diaz flicks her pigtails every two seconds and is also chewing gum. She hardly challenges the existing stereotype of blonde women but adds fuel to the fire. This is supported further by the fact that her skirt is so short, the audience can see clearly underneath it.Perhaps Natalie is the Ã¢â¬ËbimboÃ¢â¬â¢ of the group. The director has clearly added to the stereotype of blondeÃ¢â¬â¢s being stupid through NatalieÃ¢â¬â¢s cha racter however this could be challenged throughout the plot. I believe this opening scene and in fact the entire plot supports MulveyÃ¢â¬â¢s Male Gaze theory. It states that Ã¢â¬Å"media texts are created through the eyes of a heterosexual male and that women are viewed for the pleasure of men. Ã¢â¬ (Smith, 2009) She also claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"women are turned into sex objects through how they are shot in the media (Cinematography). (Smith, 2009) CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s Angels: Full Throttle demonstrates this. The plot should challenge the norm and allow women to break free however the body language and costumes used throughout diverges the male audience from the plot and to the women being sexualised. In a review by the BBC, Nev Pierce argued Ã¢â¬Å"some call it girl power, others demeaning. Ã¢â¬ Furthermore, Ã¢â¬Å"When female protagonists, for example, have to function as law enforcers and confront criminal behaviour Ã¢â¬â both associated with male authority and action Ã¢â¬â gendered conflict inevitably follows. Ã¢â¬ (Hall, 1997, p. 364)However, this film could mislead women into thinking they have to become successful and independent by wearing tight, revealing clothes and caking up their faces with make-up but of course this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t true. Ã¢â¬Å"It really makes me more and more angry. The aim is to rake in money, loads of money and people try to do that by all means of all these things Ã¢â¬â sex, beautiful people, wealth and you always have people who fall for it. Ã¢â¬ (Ang, 1997, p. 347) This opening scene shows three very different women with different talents however what they all have in common is their characters have been onstructed to appeal to different types of men but collectively appeal to all men. Although this action film had 3 women in lead roles, it failed to truly challenge the existing stereotypes of women having to be objects and requiring sex appeal to become successful. In reality, Ã¢â¬Å"a woman cannot be herself in the society of the present day, which is an exclusively masculine society, with laws framed by men and with a judicial system that judges feminine conduct from a masculine point of view. Ã¢â¬ References Websites CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s Angels: Full Throttle blog (non-official) http://c-angels. blogspot. co. uk/ Pierce, Nev. (2003). BBC film review. http://www. bbc. co. uk/films/2003/06/27/charlies_angels_full_throttle_2003_review. shtml Smith, Mr (2009). Representation Theory Ã¢â¬â http://www. slideshare. net/fleckneymike/representation-theory-2458490 Smcmediastudies, (2011). The Representation of Women in the Media http://www. slideshare. net/smcmediastudies/the-representation-of-women-in-the-media Books Ang, Ien. (2006). Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, in association with Sage. Ang, I. (1985) Watching Dallas: soap opera and the melodramatic imagination, New York, Methuen. Ibsen, Henrik (1917). IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s Workshop.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
A foam is a substance made by trapping air or gas bubbles inside a solid or liquid. Typically, the volume of gas is much larger than that of the liquid or solid, with thin films separating gas pockets. Another definition of foam is a bubbly liquid, particularly if the bubbles, or froth, are undesirable. Foam can impede the flow of a liquid and block gas exchange with air. Anti-foaming agents may be added to a liquid to help prevent bubbles from forming. The term foam may also refer to other phenomena that resemble foams, such as foam rubber and quantum foam. How Foam Forms Three requirements must be met in order for foam to form. Mechanical work is needed to increase the surface area. This can occur by agitation, dispersing a large volume of gas into a liquid, or injecting a gas into a liquid. The second requirement is that surfactants or surface active components must be present to decrease surface tension. Finally, the foam must form more quickly than it breaks down. Foams may be open-cell or closed-cell in nature. Pores connect the gas regions in open-cell foams, while closed-cell foams have enclosed cells. The cells are usually disordered in their arrangement, with varying bubble sizes. The cells present minimal surface area, forming honeycomb shapes or tessellations. Foams are stabilized by the Marangoni effect and by van der Waals forces. The Marangoni effect is a mass transfer along the interface between fluids due to surface tension gradient. In foams, the effect acts to restore lamellae (a network of interconnected films). Van der Waals forces form electric double layers when dipolar surfactants are present. Foams are destabilized as gas bubbles rise through them. Also, gravity pulls liquid downward in a liquid-gas foam. Osmotic pressure drains lamellae because of concentration differences throughout the structure. Laplace pressure and disjoining pressure also act to destabilize foams. Examples of Foam Examples of foams formed by gases in liquids include whipped cream, fire retardant foam, and soap bubbles. Rising bread dough may be considered a semisolid foam. Solid foams include dry wood, polystyrene foam, memory foam, and mat foam (as for camping and yoga mats). Its also possible to make a foam using metal. Foam Uses Bubbles and bath foam are fun uses of foam, but it has many practical uses, too. Fire retardant foam is used to extinguish fires.Solid foams may be used to engineer strong yet light materials.Solid foams are excellent thermal insulators.Solid foams are used to make flotation devices.Because solid foams are light and compressible, they make an excellent stuffing and packing material.A closed-cell foam called a syntactic foam consists of hollow particles in a matrix. This type of foam is used to make shape memory resins. Syntactic foams are also used in space and deep-sea exploration.Self-skin or integral skin foam consists of a dense skin with a lower density core. This type of foam is used to make shoe soles, mattresses, and baby seats.
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Hugo (2011) Direction by Martin Scorsese Writing by John Logan (screenplay) and Brian Selznick (book) Editing by Thelma Schoonmaker Cinematography by Robert Richardson About the film: Hugo (2011) is the story of a young orphaned adventurer whose determination to discover a secret, brings to light the forgotten contributions of a film pioneer. The movie begins with various 1st person point of view panoramic shots of the Gare du Nord rail station from inside the numerous clocks found inside the rail station, while Hugo (Asa Butterfield) is shown moving around the maze of passages from clock to clock. Hugo, who fixes the clocks at Gare du Nord due to the death of his Uncle Claud, also spends his time trying to fix a brokenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hugo inserts the key into the automation and the automation draws a picture. The picture is of the Moon with a telescope, from A Trip to the Moon (1902) one of the earliest films done by Georges MÃ ©liÃ ¨s. This clue tells Hugo that the toy merchant (Ben Kingsley) might actually be the great film pioneer Georges MÃ ©liÃ ¨s and is not dead as film historians assumed. HugoÃ¢â¬â¢s father used to tell Hugo stories of the first films he went to, particularly the amazement with Georges MÃ ©liÃ ¨s films. As Hugo and Isabella do research on Georges MÃ ©liÃ ¨s, it is dis covered that copies of Georges MÃ ©liÃ ¨sÃ¢â¬â¢ films exist even as it was assumed they had all been destroyed. With Hugo instrumental in exposing the forgotten films and talents of MÃ ©liÃ ¨s, Georges MÃ ©liÃ ¨s steps up and declares that Hugo is not an orphan, but is under MÃ ©liÃ ¨s charge. The movie ends with an event honoring Georges MÃ ©liÃ ¨s and the audience learning that almost 80 versions of MÃ ©liÃ ¨sÃ¢â¬â¢ films had been found and restored. Personal impression: I found Hugo (2011) to be a very entertaining watch for the story but more for being a very visually appealing film. 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